Microsoft has published a new Guide that will help you with TFS installation troubleshooting.
According to Microsoft there are three main reasons for an installation of Team Foundation Server to fail:
One or more procedures were skipped during the installation of a prerequisite component.
Not all components from a previous installation were completely removed.
Changes were made to one or more prerequisite components to increase secure connections, but these changes interfere with the successful installation of Team Foundation Server.
You can read it here.