WCF or ASP.NET Web APIs? My two cents on the subject

March 5, 2012


A couple of weeks ago (around Feb. 16) the WCF WebAPIs – a framework for building RESTful/Hypermedia/HTTP services, which was in development over the past 1.5 years as a side-project on CodePlex, has been formally integrated into ASP.NET and its name changed to the ASP.NET Web API.

These past two weeks, there has been a lot of questions among WCF developers: What does it mean that the Web APIs are no longer a part of WCF – is WCF dead? Has SOAP gone bankrupted? is HTTP the new way to go for interoperability?

To get a better understanding of what happened and what is the way to go, we need to answer a couple of questions:

1. What is the purpose of the WebAPIs?

2. Why do we need REST HTTP services? What’s wrong with SOAP-over-HTTP?

3. Why did the WebAPIs move from WCF to ASP.NET MVC?

4. Is there still a use for WCF? When should I choose Web APIs over WCF?

What is the purpose of the WebAPIs?

When WCF was conceived back in its Indigo and .NET 3 days, the main goal was to support SOAP + WS-* over a wide variety of transports. However, over time it became clear that although SOAP is wide spread and supported on many platforms, it is not the only way to go when creating services. There is also a need to also support non-SOAP services, especially over HTTP, where you can harness the power of the HTTP protocol to create HTTP services: services that are activated by simple GET requests, or by passing plain XML over POST, and respond with non-SOAP content such as plain XML, a JSON string, or any other content that can be used by the consumer. Support for non-SOAP services was very much needed in WCF back then, mostly because some clients, such as web browsers, were not that suitable to handle SOAP messages (plenty of XML parsing and DOM manipulation).

So in WCF 3.5 we got the WebHttpBinding – a new binding that helped us create this kind of non-SOAP service over HTTP, better known as a RESTful service.

The WebHttpBinding was not enough, and after WCF 3.5 was released, a new set of tools was created – the WCF REST Starter Kit. The REST starter kit was an attempt to enrich the support of WCF 3.5 for HTTP services – add better client-side support for .NET apps, extend the server side support for other content types, enable response and request caching, inspection of messages and so forth. Unfortunately, this great toolkit was never officially released and ended its product cycle as “Preview 2”, although it’s still being used today in some of Microsoft’s products that are built with .NET 3.5.

Although not released, some of the service-side features of the REST starter kit were integrated into WCF 4 – we didn’t get any of the client-side libraries, but we did get most of the service-side features (excluding the new inspectors). Some were well-integrated into WCF while others required the use of ASP.NET (by turning on the ASP.NET compatibility mode).

So with WCF 4 we had some support for “Web” HTTP services, but it wasn’t that perfect – to get some of the features you needed IIS hosting and ASP.NET, not all types of requests were supported easily (ever tried posting HTML form data to a WCF HTTP service?), the overuse of CLR attributes to define the POST/GET/PUT/DELETE was tedious, not to mention the configuration required to create this type of services with all of the endpoint behavior. And even after all of that we didn’t actually get full control over the HTTP messages.

That was the main goal of the Web APIs, known back then as the WCF Web APIs: to stop looking at HTTP through the eyes of WCF – as just a transport protocol to pass requests. Rather, it allows us to look at it as the real application-level protocol it is – a rich, interoperable, resource-oriented protocol. The purpose of the Web APIs was to properly use URIs, HTTP headers, and body to create HTTP services for the web, and for everyone else that wished to embrace HTTP as its protocol and lifelong friend.

Why do we need REST HTTP services? What’s wrong with SOAP-over-HTTP?

The world of SOAP and the world of HTTP services are very different. SOAP allows us to place all the knowledge required by our service in the message itself, disregarding its transport protocol, whether it is TCP, HTTP, UDP, PGM, Named Pipes… But unlike TCP, UDP and the other level 4-5 protocols, HTTP is an application-level protocol, and as such it offers a wide variety of features:

  • It supports verbs that define the action – query information using GET, place new information and update existing using POST or PUT, remove information using DELETE etc.
  • It contains message headers that are very meaningful and descriptive – headers that suggest the content type of the message’s body, headers that explain how to cache information, how to secure it etc.
  • It contains a body that can be used for any type of content, not just XML content as SOAP enforces (and if you want something else – encode it to base64 strings and place it in the SOAP’s XML content). The body of HTTP messages can be anything you want – HTML, plain XML, JSON, binary files (images, videos, documents…) …
  • It uses URIs for identifying both information paths (resources) and actions – the URI templates initiative is catching on and is rapidly becoming the standard way of representing requests for resources and hypermedia URIs.

The use of HTTP has evolved over the years. Application-level protocol architectural styles such as REST Hypermedia APIs have emerged on top of HTTP. These, in turn, harness the power of HTTP to create resource-oriented services, and better define the stateless interaction between clients and services.

The Web APIs therefore were intended to allow all of these approaches – you can use it to create HTTP services that only use the standard HTTP concepts (URIs and verbs), and to to create services that use more advanced HTTP features – request/response headers, hypermedia concepts etc.

So HTTP is a lot more than a transport protocol. It is an application-level protocol, and the fact is that although many platforms know how to use SOAP, many more platforms know how to use HTTP! among the HTTP supporting platforms which do not support SOAP that well are the browsers – probably the most important platforms for web developers (and users). And if you don’t believe me that REST and hypermedia are useful, maybe Martin Fowler can convince you better than me.

This, of course, does not mean that SOAP is redundant – SOAP is still useful for building messages when you don’t have an alternative application-level protocol at your disposal, or when you want to use SOAP across the board while considering HTTP as no more than another way to pass messages (for example, use HTTP because it can cross firewalls more easily than TCP).

Why did the WebAPIs move from WCF to ASP.NET MVC?

Back to the story of WCF and the WCF Web APIs (we are still before the merger). Another goal of the WCF Web APIs was to incorporate known concepts that would help developers to overcome some of the drawbacks they faced with WCF, such as huge configurations, overuse of attributes, and the WCF infrastructure that did not support testing well. Thus the Web APIs used IoC, enabled convention-over-configuration, and tried to offer simpler configuration environment.

The problem was that at that point in time there were several approaches for constructing HTTP services:

1. WCF with the WebHttp binding and REST support.

2. The new WCF Web APIs, soon to be ASP.NET Web APIs.

3. A not-so-new framework, ASP.NET MVC, which took a break from being HTML-oriented (getting requests from HTML pages and returning HTML/JSON) to being Resource-oriented – people started realizing that they can consider controllers as services and use the MVC infrastructure to define the control requests, responses, and better control the HTTP message.

4. Open source frameworks such as OpenRasta and ServiceStack.

In addition to that, as time passed, the WCF Web APIs had a lot of trouble adapting WCF to the “native” HTTP world. As WCF was primarily designed for SOAP-based XML messages, and the “open-heart” surgery that was required to make the Web API work as part of WCF was a bit too much (or so I understand from people who were involved in creating the Web APIs). On the other hand, the ASP.NET MVC infrastructure with its elegant handling of HTTP requests and responses, and its support of easy-to-create controllers seemed like the proper way to go for creating this new type of services.

So the fact was we had too many options and therefore too much confusion. What were we to do? We merge teams! (Kind of reminds us of the time of LINQ-to-SQL and Entity Framework, WCF and Ado.Net Data Services and other such examples). So the WCF team and the ASP.NET team joined forces and created a new framework focused on the world of REST/Hypermedia/HTTP services for the web world and thus came out the ASP.NET Web APIs.

I’m still not so sure about the choice of names, as the new Web APIs can also work outside of ASP.NET with the use of WCF, but I guess that the name “WCF ASP.NET Web API” was a bit long. Maybe “WASP Web API”? “WAWAPI” (Wcf Aspnet Web API)? Or maybe simply call it “Hypermedia Web API”?

So this merger is intended to reduce confusion, not induce it. I guess that if it was explained at that time, it might have caused less confusion over time (see the Silverlight is dead slip of PDC 2010). Does Microsoft need a new DevDiv PR team?

Is there still use for WCF? when should I choose Web APIs over WCF?

Recall my points from before – HTTP is a lot more than a transport protocol; use SOAP across the board and consider HTTP as no more than another way to pass messages.

  • If your intention is to create services that support special scenarios – one way messaging, message queues, duplex communication etc, then you’re better of picking WCF
  • If you want to create services that can use fast transport channels when available, such as TCP, Named Pipes, or maybe even UDP (in WCF 4.5), and you also want to support HTTP when all other transports are unavailable, then you’re better off with WCF and using both SOAP-based bindings and the WebHttp binding.
  • If you want to create resource-oriented services over HTTP that can use the full features of HTTP – define cache control for browsers, versioning and concurrency using ETags, pass various content types such as images, documents, HTML pages etc., use URI templates to include Task URIs in your responses, then the new Web APIs are the best choice for you.
  • If you want to create a multi-target service that can be used as both resource-oriented service over HTTP and as RPC-style SOAP service over TCP – talk to me first, so I’ll give you some pointers.

I hope this helped you removing some of the confusion over this topic.

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  1. PauloMarch 6, 2012 ב 3:49 am

    “to stop looking at HTTP through the eyes of WCF – as just a transport protocol to pass requests. Rather, it allows us to look at it as the real application-level protocol”

    Wow, what a great insight, thank you. Now I am starting to understand all this changes.

    As for the “multi-target service” you mentioned on the last sentence, can you elaborate more on that? For example, will it be possible to use a hybrid approach, like hosting the Web API outside ASP.NET?

  2. Ido FlatowMarch 6, 2012 ב 3:52 pm

    Hi Paulo,
    the Web APIs can be hosted outside of ASP.NET, by using WCF as the hosting environment.
    Check out this blog post that shows how to do it:

  3. YevhenMarch 8, 2012 ב 12:34 am

    “If you want to create a multi-target service that can be used as both resource-oriented service over HTTP and as RPC-style SOAP service over TCP – talk to me first, so I’ll give you some pointers.”

    So when can we expect a blog post on the matter? 😉

  4. Ali HmerMarch 8, 2012 ב 9:29 pm

    What a comprehensive explanation. You should consider writing a book about WCF and Web API.

  5. Ido FlatowMarch 9, 2012 ב 7:10 pm

    Thanks for the compliments. I’ve actually written a book about WCF 4 before for Microsoft, as part of the Microsoft’s WCF 4 course (10263A). I’m still considering whether I will have time for another book if an opportunity arises.


  6. RajeshJuly 2, 2012 ב 6:28 am


    If you are targeting a web portal that can be accessed via desktop and mobile browsers, and want to leverage MVC 4 for UI and Web API for services (hosted on IIS) in a RESTful implementation ==> what do you think can be the big challenges here? I mean challenges if we are not used traditional web forms with wCF services model.

    I want to emphasize that this web portal using MVC 4 + web API is intended to be used in production environmnet and accessed my many users. Will appreciate any pointers and detail explaination.


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  23. SleeperDecember 11, 2012 ב 1:10 am

    Excellent excellent post. But if Hypermedia API is the reason behind the drive for WebAPI, then I must ask, why do we still have Controller and ApiController class? Human readable webpage is merely another supported MIME type media of the Hypermedia API isn’t it?

    To separate them is like saying “WebApi handles all mime type except for text/html for which you go –> over there”. Can WebAPI handle text/html, ok maybe it can handle, but does it (or will it) retain and assimilate the feature set of ASP.NET MVC?

    Otherwise, if all it does it xml/json, WCF is perfectly capable of handling it with some custom behaviors, [WebInvoke] Attributes with appropriate verbs??

    Again, thx for the post. Awesome read.

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  56. zvievylocx@gmail.comOctober 22, 2013 ב 4:45 pm

    I would never recommend Hardie Plank to anyone. We have had nothing but trouble with the product and the company! There are 3 locations where we can not keep paint on the boards. A professional painter has tried several products and procedures to no success. Hardie Plank will not do anything about it. They said the “new” installation regs say we installed it wrong. Guess 3 years after installation we are to remove and re-install to the “new” regs. I don’t think so! We had it installed correctly to what info we had at the time. Hardie Plank should replace but would not do anything about it. I would not recommend the company nor the product!!!!

  57. VuanalpileLydayyOctober 23, 2013 ב 3:50 pm

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  59. lsmqvufj@gmail.comOctober 25, 2013 ב 3:50 pm

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  60. dbjene@gmail.comOctober 29, 2013 ב 4:26 pm

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  61. bfpkjnlbrd@gmail.comNovember 2, 2013 ב 3:12 am

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  62. uawnwmqroy@gmail.comNovember 5, 2013 ב 10:06 pm

    Aura, te mandé un email. Saludos!